A busy market in central Africa. Among the goods are birds trapped in cages while vendors haggle over prices. In West Africa, bird carcass stalls are an important part of the bush meat markets in the region. These are just a few examples of the plight of wild birds not just in Africa but around the world. The truth is that illegal killing, taking and trading is causing wild birds to become extinct. Recent studies have shown astonishing numbers in the Mediterranean, the Arabian Peninsula, Northern and Central Europe, and the Caucasus. In these regions, millions of birds are removed from their habitats every year – dead or alive – with devastating effects on the populations of some species.
In the Mediterranean basin, Egypt loses around 5.7 million birds annually to these practices. For example, the population of the European turtle dove Streptopelia turtur has shrunk by 30-49% in 15 years and is now classified as critically endangered. Meanwhile, the European scooter Coracias Garrulus has become extinct in Germany, Denmark, Sweden and Finland, while the legendary Eurasian goldfinch Carduelis carduelis has lost 56.7% of its range in the western Maghreb due to extensive hunting and trade. Its rarity has led to a rise in prices and the creation of an illegal international trade network across the region. A goldfinch is currently worth $ 50 – almost a third of the average monthly income in the area. Despite all of this information, little is known about the impact of the illegal killing, taking and trading of wild birds in the sub-Saharan region.
European Roller, Copyright Glyn Sellors, from the Surfbirds Galleries
Deciphering trends in sub-Saharan Africa
In sub-Saharan Africa, the illegal removal of wild birds from their natural habitats is not well documented. However, the data we have suggests that large numbers of birds are legally and illegally hunted for a variety of reasons, with certain species being severely affected. For example, 97% of the 41,737 African gray parrots traded via Singapore in 2005-2014 were from African countries including the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Liberia and South Africa, the DRC is the main exporter. Around 2 million birds were shot in South Africa in 2013 and between 174,000 and 428,000 wild birds were illegally poisoned each year.
The trade in birds and their by-products could amount to a billion dollar industry worldwide, of which sub-Saharan Africa may have a significant stake. Birds in Africa are not only exchanged for food and income, but also for faith. These cultural beliefs and practices pose a particular threat to large birds. Indeed, vultures and African hornbills are critically endangered. In 2020, more than 2,000 hooded vultures, Necrosyrtes monachus (Critically Endangered), died in a mass poisoning incident related to belief-based use, further underscoring the plight of these birds across the continent.
“Given the immense environmental and human pollution of African bird populations and the lack of sufficient data on the killing, taking and action of birds, the challenges for nature conservation are increasing. Governments and other stakeholders are more likely to prioritize the conservation challenges of better studied biodiversity such as large mammals and thereby jeopardize the survival of bird species, ”says Alex Ngari, program manager for migratory birds and flyways at BirdLife Africa.
As part of the first steps towards solving the problem, BirdLife International has started a study to review, collate and collate all available information on the subject in the sub-Saharan region. The 8-month desk review attempts to document species, reasons, methods for the illegal killing and taking of birds and hotspot areas in relevant countries. The trends, gaps, reference lists, and links identified in publications are recorded to enable further detailed research using questionnaires.
“We are open to data and information on this topic in the region. A report on the status of the killing, taking and trafficking of birds in sub-Saharan Africa will be published at the end of this study, with updated data and gaps that need further research, ”added Ngari.
“The idea of BirdLife International at this stage is to build a strong knowledge base around the topic, and thus guide follow-up, research and participation with other conservation organizations, governments and researchers. We are therefore inviting any secondary information that might help solve the puzzle, ”concludes Kariuki Ndang’ang’a, Head of Nature Conservation at BirdLife in Africa.